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APA Citation Guide: DOI or url?

digital object identifier or uniform resource locator?

If assigned, use the DOI in your reference.   To prevent retrieval problems of the document, do put any punctuation after the DOI.

If you do not see a DOI, you can go to to look up your article and obtain the DOI.

If you are unable to locate the DOI, you may use the stable url from the online database in which you found the article.

If no stable url exists, you may then include the url of the publication homepage.

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Assistance is available whenever the library is open (see current Library Hours).

In person:

See the reference librarian in person at the Library Reference Desk for immediate service.

Phone us at: 805-289-6382